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Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation from the year 2016 in the subject Psychology - Learning Psychology, Intelligence Research, grade: Magna Cum Laude, University of Leipzig, course: Psycholinguistik, language: English, abstract: Motivation and attitudes are considered as hypothetical psychological constructs in explaining both the process and outcome of second/foreign language learning. The taxonomy and categorization of second/foreign language motivation into integrative and instrumental motivation has long been established and dominated L2 motivation research in different educational contexts. According to Lambert (1972), Integrative motivation reflects an interest in learning another language because of a sincere and personal interest in the people and culture represented by the other language group. Instrumental motivation on the other hand, refers to the pragmatic and functional orientations in learning a foreign language. Gardner (1985) claimed that integrative motivation is the most important and predictable factor of excelling in a second language than the instrumental motivation. Nevertheless, this assumption that stresses the importance of integrative motivation over the instrumental one in predicting the level of success in learning a second language, has rather been challenged, and a set of controversial findings have been reported. This study sought to compare and investigate the motivational and attitudinal orientations of Sudanese undergraduate students towards learning English and German; in relation to the target language in question and gender differences. In addition, it intended to examine if there would be any correlation between students' level of motivation and attitudes, and their self-assessed achievement in the target language. The sample of this study composed of 221 students from the Faculty of Arts, University of Khartoum, Sudan. 148 students from the department of English language, and 73 students from the department of German language have