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Brain Circuits and Childhood Syndromes The book explores the contribution of connectionist, cognitive and biological models to a better understanding of childhood behavioural syndromes at a time when rapid advances in brain mapping techniques suggest a 'brain circuit' understanding of child development and behaviour. The prototypic structure of all brain circuits is described as originating in the frontal lobes, projecting to striatal structures, thalamic nuclei, and a final link back to the frontal lobes. The initial chapters examine neural network, and mechanistic cognitive models, evolution of language, and mirror systems, including analogies with birdsong development. In humans, integration of emotion with cognitive circuits is thought to occur at ventral striatal/basal ganglia levels. Higher-order functions require optimal arousal levels,to be maintained at an 'inverted-U' level. Later chapters discuss the development and malfunction of circuits involved in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Autism/Aspergers Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Tourette's Disorder, and Postraumatic Stress Disorder.